Translation for 'pragmatic' in the free English-German dictionary and many other German translations. Many translated example sentences containing "pragmatic" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. I believe, however, that we ought to be pragmatic, and avoid succumbing to hypocrisy. Sie können gleichzeitig phantasievoll und pragmatisch sein.
Translation of "pragmatisch" in EnglishUniversité de Genève; CLS = Papers from the Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society; JoP = Journal of Pragmatics.] Abraham, W. The. Übersetzung für 'pragmatic' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Constructive pragmatics and semantics, many of you will not know what that is. Serious knowledge of this activity means getting involved in it in the way of.
Paragmatic Meniu de navigare VideoWhat is Pragmatics? The pragmatic meaning of an idea, belief, or proposition is said to reside in the distinct class of specific experimental or practical consequences that result from the use, application, or entertainment of the notion. As Peirce commented, “Our idea of anything is our idea of its sensible effects.”. Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies how context contributes to meaning. Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology. Pragmatic means practical, especially when making decisions. The word pragmatic is often contrasted with the word idealistic, which means based on or having high principles or ideals. The movement is a call to action for studios to make movies, for artists to paint pictures, and for anyone with access to the means of creation and communication to participate in the most pragmatic form of dreaming. Solarpunk Is Growing a Gorgeous New World in the Cracks of the Old One Carin Ism September 6, Singularity Hub. The word pragmatic has been busy over its more than four centuries of use. Its earliest meanings were "busy," "meddlesome," and "opinionated," but those are now considered archaic uses. The word continues, as it has since the late 19th century, to be used in reference to the philosophical movement of pragmatism (see sense 2).
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The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence. Pragmatics was a reaction to structuralist linguistics as outlined by Ferdinand de Saussure.
In many cases, it expanded upon his idea that language has an analyzable structure, composed of parts that can be defined in relation to others.
Pragmatics first engaged only in synchronic study, as opposed to examining the historical development of language. However, it rejected the notion that all meaning comes from signs existing purely in the abstract space of langue.
Meanwhile, historical pragmatics has also come into being. The field did not gain linguists' attention until the s, when two different schools emerged: the Anglo-American pragmatic thought and the European continental pragmatic thought also called the perspective view.
The sentence "You have a green light" is ambiguous. Without knowing the context, the identity of the speaker or the speaker's intent, it is difficult to infer the meaning with certainty.
For example, it could mean:. To understand what the speaker is truly saying, it is a matter of context, which is why it is pragmatically ambiguous as well.
Similarly, the sentence "Sherlock saw the man with binoculars" could mean that Sherlock observed the man by using binoculars, or it could mean that Sherlock observed a man who was holding binoculars syntactic ambiguity.
As defined in linguistics, a sentence is an abstract entity: a string of words divorced from non-linguistic context, as opposed to an utterance , which is a concrete example of a speech act in a specific context.
The more closely conscious subjects stick to common words, idioms, phrasings, and topics, the more easily others can surmise their meaning; the further they stray from common expressions and topics, the wider the variations in interpretations.
That suggests that sentences do not have intrinsic meaning, that there is no meaning associated with a sentence or word, and that either can represent an idea only symbolically.
The cat sat on the mat is a sentence in English. If someone were to say to someone else, "The cat sat on the mat," the act is itself an utterance.
That implies that a sentence, term, expression or word cannot symbolically represent a single true meaning; such meaning is underspecified which cat sat on which mat?
By contrast, the meaning of an utterance can be inferred through knowledge of both its linguistic and non-linguistic contexts which may or may not be sufficient to resolve ambiguity.
In mathematics, with Berry's paradox , there arises a similar systematic ambiguity with the word "definable". The referential uses of language are how signs are used to refer to certain items.
A sign is the link or relationship between a signified and the signifier as defined by de Saussure and Huguenin. The signified is some entity or concept in the world.
The signifier represents the signified. An example would be:. The relationship between the two gives the sign meaning.
The relationship can be explained further by considering what we mean by "meaning. An example would be propositions such as:.
In this case, the proposition is describing that Santa Claus eats cookies. The meaning of the proposition does not rely on whether or not Santa Claus is eating cookies at the time of its utterance.
Santa Claus could be eating cookies at any time and the meaning of the proposition would remain the same. The meaning is simply describing something that is the case in the world.
In contrast, the proposition, "Santa Claus is eating a cookie right now," describes events that are happening at the time the proposition is uttered.
If someone were to say that a tiger is a carnivorous animal in one context and a mammal in another, the definition of tiger would still be the same.
The meaning of the sign tiger is describing some animal in the world, which does not change in either circumstance. Indexical meaning, on the other hand, is dependent on the context of the utterance and has rules of use.
By rules of use, it is meant that indexicals can tell you when they are used, but not what they actually mean.
As mentioned, these meanings are brought about through the relationship between the signified and the signifier.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that considers words and thought as tools and instruments for prediction, problem solving, and action, and rejects the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality.
Pragmatists contend that most philosophical topics—such as the nature of knowledge, language, concepts, meaning, belief, and science—are all best viewed in terms of their practical uses and successes.
Pragmatism began in the United States in the s. Its origins are often attributed to the philosophers Charles Sanders Peirce , William James , and John Dewey.
In , Peirce described it in his pragmatic maxim : "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object.
Pragmatism as a philosophical movement began in the United States around The first use in print of the name pragmatism was in by James, who credited Peirce with coining the term during the early s.
John Green had been instrumental by emphasizing the importance of applying Alexander Bain 's definition of belief, which was "that upon which a man is prepared to act".
Peirce wrote that "from this definition, pragmatism is scarce more than a corollary; so that I am disposed to think of him as the grandfather of pragmatism".
John Shook has said, "Chauncey Wright also deserves considerable credit, for as both Peirce and James recall, it was Wright who demanded a phenomenalist and fallibilist empiricism as an alternative to rationalistic speculation.
Peirce developed the idea that inquiry depends on real doubt, not mere verbal or hyperbolic doubt ,  and said that, in order to understand a conception in a fruitful way, "Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception.
Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object",  which he later called the pragmatic maxim.
It equates any conception of an object to the general extent of the conceivable implications for informed practice of that object's effects.
This is the heart of his pragmatism as a method of experimentational mental reflection arriving at conceptions in terms of conceivable confirmatory and disconfirmatory circumstances—a method hospitable to the generation of explanatory hypotheses, and conducive to the employment and improvement of verification.
Typical of Peirce is his concern with inference to explanatory hypotheses as outside the usual foundational alternative between deductivist rationalism and inductivist empiricism, although he was a mathematical logician and a founder of statistics.
Peirce lectured and further wrote on pragmatism to make clear his own interpretation. While framing a conception's meaning in terms of conceivable tests, Peirce emphasized that, since a conception is general, its meaning, its intellectual purport, equates to its acceptance's implications for general practice, rather than to any definite set of real effects or test results ; a conception's clarified meaning points toward its conceivable verifications, but the outcomes are not meanings, but individual upshots.
Peirce in coined the new name pragmaticism "for the precise purpose of expressing the original definition",  saying that "all went happily" with James's and F.
Schiller 's variant uses of the old name "pragmatism" and that he nonetheless coined the new name because of the old name's growing use in "literary journals, where it gets abused".
Yet in a manuscript, he cited as causes his differences with James and Schiller. Peirce in any case regarded his views that truth is immutable and infinity is real, as being opposed by the other pragmatists, but he remained allied with them on other issues.
Pragmatism enjoyed renewed attention after Willard Van Orman Quine and Wilfrid Sellars used a revised pragmatism to criticize logical positivism in the s.
Inspired by the work of Quine and Sellars, a brand of pragmatism known sometimes as neopragmatism gained influence through Richard Rorty , the most influential of the late 20th century pragmatists along with Hilary Putnam and Robert Brandom.
Contemporary pragmatism may be broadly divided into a strict analytic tradition and a "neo-classical" pragmatism such as Susan Haack that adheres to the work of Peirce, James, and Dewey.
A few of the various but often interrelated positions characteristic of philosophers working from a pragmatist approach include:.
Dewey in The Quest for Certainty criticized what he called "the philosophical fallacy": Philosophers often take categories such as the mental and the physical for granted because they don't realize that these are nominal concepts that were invented to help solve specific problems.
Various examples are the " ultimate Being " of Hegelian philosophers, the belief in a " realm of value ", the idea that logic, because it is an abstraction from concrete thought, has nothing to do with the action of concrete thinking.
David L. Hildebrand summarized the problem: "Perceptual inattention to the specific functions comprising inquiry led realists and idealists alike to formulate accounts of knowledge that project the products of extensive abstraction back onto experience.
From the outset, pragmatists wanted to reform philosophy and bring it more in line with the scientific method as they understood it.
They argued that idealist and realist philosophy had a tendency to present human knowledge as something beyond what science could grasp.
They held that these philosophies then resorted either to a phenomenology inspired by Kant or to correspondence theories of knowledge and truth.
Pragmatism instead tries to explain the relation between knower and known. In ,  C. Peirce argued that there is no power of intuition in the sense of a cognition unconditioned by inference, and no power of introspection, intuitive or otherwise, and that awareness of an internal world is by hypothetical inference from external facts.
Introspection and intuition were staple philosophical tools at least since Descartes. He argued that there is no absolutely first cognition in a cognitive process; such a process has its beginning but can always be analyzed into finer cognitive stages.
That which we call introspection does not give privileged access to knowledge about the mind—the self is a concept that is derived from our interaction with the external world and not the other way around De Waal , pp.
At the same time he held persistently that pragmatism and epistemology in general could not be derived from principles of psychology understood as a special science:  what we do think is too different from what we should think; in his " Illustrations of the Logic of Science " series, Peirce formulated both pragmatism and principles of statistics as aspects of scientific method in general.
Richard Rorty expanded on these and other arguments in Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature in which he criticized attempts by many philosophers of science to carve out a space for epistemology that is entirely unrelated to—and sometimes thought of as superior to—the empirical sciences.
Quine, instrumental in bringing naturalized epistemology back into favor with his essay "Epistemology Naturalized" Quine , also criticized "traditional" epistemology and its "Cartesian dream" of absolute certainty.
The dream, he argued, was impossible in practice as well as misguided in theory, because it separates epistemology from scientific inquiry.
Hilary Putnam has suggested that the reconciliation of anti-skepticism  and fallibilism is the central goal of American pragmatism.
Peirce insisted that 1 in reasoning, there is the presupposition, and at least the hope,  that truth and the real are discoverable and would be discovered, sooner or later but still inevitably, by investigation taken far enough,  and 2 contrary to Descartes' famous and influential methodology in the Meditations on First Philosophy , doubt cannot be feigned or created by verbal fiat to motivate fruitful inquiry, and much less can philosophy begin in universal doubt.
Genuine doubt irritates and inhibits, in the sense that belief is that upon which one is prepared to act. Inquiry is then the rationally self-controlled process of attempting to return to a settled state of belief about the matter.
Note that anti-skepticism is a reaction to modern academic skepticism in the wake of Descartes.
The pragmatist insistence that all knowledge is tentative is quite congenial to the older skeptical tradition. Pragmatism was not the first to apply evolution to theories of knowledge: Schopenhauer advocated a biological idealism as what's useful to an organism to believe might differ wildly from what is true.
Here knowledge and action are portrayed as two separate spheres with an absolute or transcendental truth above and beyond any sort of inquiry organisms used to cope with life.
Pragmatism challenges this idealism by providing an "ecological" account of knowledge: inquiry is how organisms can get a grip on their environment.
Real and true are functional labels in inquiry and cannot be understood outside of this context. It is not realist in a traditionally robust sense of realism what Hilary Putnam later called metaphysical realism , but it is realist in how it acknowledges an external world which must be dealt with.
Many of James' best-turned phrases—"truth's cash value" James , p. William James wrote:. It is high time to urge the use of a little imagination in philosophy.
The unwillingness of some of our critics to read any but the silliest of possible meanings into our statements is as discreditable to their imaginations as anything I know in recent philosophic history.
Schiller says the truth is that which "works. Dewey says truth is what gives "satisfaction"! He is treated as one who believes in calling everything true which, if it were true, would be pleasant.
James , p. The role of belief in representing reality is widely debated in pragmatism. Is a belief valid when it represents reality?
Are beliefs dispositions which qualify as true or false depending on how helpful they prove in inquiry and in action? Is it only in the struggle of intelligent organisms with the surrounding environment that beliefs acquire meaning?
Does a belief only become true when it succeeds in this struggle? In James's pragmatism nothing practical or useful is held to be necessarily true nor is anything which helps to survive merely in the short term.
For example, to believe my cheating spouse is faithful may help me feel better now, but it is certainly not useful from a more long-term perspective because it doesn't accord with the facts and is therefore not true.
While pragmatism started simply as a criterion of meaning, it quickly expanded to become a full-fledged epistemology with wide-ranging implications for the entire philosophical field.
Pragmatists who work in these fields share a common inspiration, but their work is diverse and there are no received views.
In the philosophy of science, instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments and progress in science cannot be couched in terms of concepts and theories somehow mirroring reality.
Instrumentalist philosophers often define scientific progress as nothing more than an improvement in explaining and predicting phenomena. Instrumentalism does not state that truth does not matter, but rather provides a specific answer to the question of what truth and falsity mean and how they function in science.
One of C. Lewis ' main arguments in Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge was that science does not merely provide a copy of reality but must work with conceptual systems and that those are chosen for pragmatic reasons, that is, because they aid inquiry.
Lewis' own development of multiple modal logics is a case in point. Lewis is sometimes called a proponent of conceptual pragmatism because of this.
Another development is the cooperation of logical positivism and pragmatism in the works of Charles W. Morris and Rudolf Carnap.
The influence of pragmatism on these writers is mostly limited to the incorporation of the pragmatic maxim into their epistemology.
Pragmatists with a broader conception of the movement do not often refer to them. Quine 's paper " Two Dogmas of Empiricism ", published in , is one of the more celebrated papers of 20th-century philosophy in the analytic tradition.
The paper is an attack on two central tenets of the logical positivists' philosophy. One is the distinction between analytic statements tautologies and contradictions whose truth or falsehood is a function of the meanings of the words in the statement 'all bachelors are unmarried' , and synthetic statements, whose truth or falsehood is a function of contingent states of affairs.
The other is reductionism, the theory that each meaningful statement gets its meaning from some logical construction of terms which refers exclusively to immediate experience.
Quine's argument brings to mind Peirce's insistence that axioms are not a priori truths but synthetic statements.
Later in his life Schiller became famous for his attacks on logic in his textbook, Formal Logic. By then, Schiller's pragmatism had become the nearest of any of the classical pragmatists to an ordinary language philosophy.
Schiller sought to undermine the very possibility of formal logic, by showing that words only had meaning when used in context.
The least famous of Schiller's main works was the constructive sequel to his destructive book Formal Logic. In this sequel, Logic for Use , Schiller attempted to construct a new logic to replace the formal logic that he had criticized in Formal Logic.
What he offers is something philosophers would recognize today as a logic covering the context of discovery and the hypothetico-deductive method.
Whereas Schiller dismissed the possibility of formal logic, most pragmatists are critical rather of its pretension to ultimate validity and see logic as one logical tool among others—or perhaps, considering the multitude of formal logics, one set of tools among others.
This is the view of C. Peirce developed multiple methods for doing formal logic. Stephen Toulmin 's The Uses of Argument inspired scholars in informal logic and rhetoric studies although it is an epistemological work.
James and Dewey were empirical thinkers in the most straightforward fashion: experience is the ultimate test and experience is what needs to be explained.
They were dissatisfied with ordinary empiricism because, in the tradition dating from Hume, empiricists had a tendency to think of experience as nothing more than individual sensations.
To the pragmatists, this went against the spirit of empiricism: we should try to explain all that is given in experience including connections and meaning, instead of explaining them away and positing sense data as the ultimate reality.
Radical empiricism , or Immediate Empiricism in Dewey's words, wants to give a place to meaning and value instead of explaining them away as subjective additions to a world of whizzing atoms.
The two were supposed, he said, to have so little to do with each other, that you could not possibly occupy your mind with them at the same time.
The world of concrete personal experiences to which the street belongs is multitudinous beyond imagination, tangled, muddy, painful and perplexed. The world to which your philosophy-professor introduces you is simple, clean and noble.
The contradictions of real life are absent from it. In point of fact it is far less an account of this actual world than a clear addition built upon it It is no explanation of our concrete universe James , pp.
Schiller 's first book Riddles of the Sphinx was published before he became aware of the growing pragmatist movement taking place in America.
In it, Schiller argues for a middle ground between materialism and absolute metaphysics. These opposites are comparable to what William James called tough-minded empiricism and tender-minded rationalism.
Schiller contends on the one hand that mechanistic naturalism cannot make sense of the "higher" aspects of our world. These include free will, consciousness, purpose, universals and some would add God.
On the other hand, abstract metaphysics cannot make sense of the "lower" aspects of our world e. While Schiller is vague about the exact sort of middle ground he is trying to establish, he suggests that metaphysics is a tool that can aid inquiry, but that it is valuable only insofar as it does help in explanation.
In the second half of the 20th century, Stephen Toulmin argued that the need to distinguish between reality and appearance only arises within an explanatory scheme and therefore that there is no point in asking what "ultimate reality" consists of.
More recently, a similar idea has been suggested by the postanalytic philosopher Daniel Dennett , who argues that anyone who wants to understand the world has to acknowledge both the "syntactical" aspects of reality i.
Radical empiricism gives answers to questions about the limits of science, the nature of meaning and value and the workability of reductionism.
These questions feature prominently in current debates about the relationship between religion and science , where it is often assumed—most pragmatists would disagree—that science degrades everything that is meaningful into "merely" physical phenomena.
Both John Dewey in Experience and Nature and half a century later Richard Rorty in his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature argued that much of the debate about the relation of the mind to the body results from conceptual confusions.
They argue instead that there is no need to posit the mind or mindstuff as an ontological category. Pragmatists disagree over whether philosophers ought to adopt a quietist or a naturalist stance toward the mind-body problem.
The former Rorty among them want to do away with the problem because they believe it's a pseudo-problem, whereas the latter believe that it is a meaningful empirical question.
Pragmatism sees no fundamental difference between practical and theoretical reason, nor any ontological difference between facts and values.
Pragmatist ethics is broadly humanist because it sees no ultimate test of morality beyond what matters for us as humans. Good values are those for which we have good reasons, viz.
The pragmatist formulation pre-dates those of other philosophers who have stressed important similarities between values and facts such as Jerome Schneewind and John Searle.
William James' contribution to ethics, as laid out in his essay The Will to Believe has often been misunderstood as a plea for relativism or irrationality.
On its own terms it argues that ethics always involves a certain degree of trust or faith and that we cannot always wait for adequate proof when making moral decisions.
Moral questions immediately present themselves as questions whose solution cannot wait for sensible proof.
A moral question is a question not of what sensibly exists, but of what is good, or would be good if it did exist. A social organism of any sort whatever, large or small, is what it is because each member proceeds to his own duty with a trust that the other members will simultaneously do theirs.
Wherever a desired result is achieved by the co-operation of many independent persons, its existence as a fact is a pure consequence of the precursive faith in one another of those immediately concerned.
A government, an army, a commercial system, a ship, a college, an athletic team, all exist on this condition, without which not only is nothing achieved, but nothing is even attempted.
The Will to Believe James Of the classical pragmatists, John Dewey wrote most extensively about morality and democracy. Edel In his classic article "Three Independent Factors in Morals" Dewey , he tried to integrate three basic philosophical perspectives on morality: the right, the virtuous and the good.
He held that while all three provide meaningful ways to think about moral questions, the possibility of conflict among the three elements cannot always be easily solved.
Anderson, SEP. Dewey also criticized the dichotomy between means and ends which he saw as responsible for the degradation of our everyday working lives and education, both conceived as merely a means to an end.
He stressed the need for meaningful labor and a conception of education that viewed it not as a preparation for life but as life itself.
Dewey  ch. Dewey was opposed to other ethical philosophies of his time, notably the emotivism of Alfred Ayer. Dewey envisioned the possibility of ethics as an experimental discipline, and thought values could best be characterized not as feelings or imperatives, but as hypotheses about what actions will lead to satisfactory results or what he termed consummatory experience.
An additional implication of this view is that ethics is a fallible undertaking because human beings are frequently unable to know what would satisfy them.
During the late s and first decade of , pragmatism was embraced by many in the field of bioethics led by the philosophers John Lachs and his student Glenn McGee , whose book The Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetic Engineering see designer baby garnered praise from within classical American philosophy and criticism from bioethics for its development of a theory of pragmatic bioethics and its rejection of the principalism theory then in vogue in medical ethics.
An anthology published by the MIT Press titled Pragmatic Bioethics included the responses of philosophers to that debate, including Micah Hester, Griffin Trotter and others many of whom developed their own theories based on the work of Dewey, Peirce, Royce and others.
Lachs developed several applications of pragmatism to bioethics independent of but extending from the work of Dewey and James. A recent pragmatist contribution to meta-ethics is Todd Lekan's Making Morality Lekan Lekan argues that morality is a fallible but rational practice and that it has traditionally been misconceived as based on theory or principles.
Instead, he argues, theory and rules arise as tools to make practice more intelligent. John Dewey's Art as Experience , based on the William James lectures he delivered at Harvard University, was an attempt to show the integrity of art, culture and everyday experience IEP.
Art, for Dewey, is or should be a part of everyone's creative lives and not just the privilege of a select group of artists.
He also emphasizes that the audience is more than a passive recipient.