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Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Irish Witchcraft and Demonology 1. JOHN D. SEYMOUR, B. For, with the exception that classic incident, modern writers seem hold that the witch-cult[ 2] never found a home Ireland did elsewhere.
The subject has never been treated fully before, though isolated notices may found here and there; this book, however imperfect may , can fairly claim the first attempt collect the scattered stories and records witchcraft Ireland[ 3] from many out--the-way sources, and present them when collected a concise and palatable form.
Although the volume may furnish little nothing new the history psychology witchcraft general, yet may also claim unwritten chapter Irish history, and show that this respect a considerable portion our country fell into line with the rest Europe.
The reason for this method treatment not hard find. From the Anglo-Norman invasion down the country has been divided into two opposing elements, the Celtic and the English.
England after the Reformation seldom find members the Roman 4. Catholic Church taking any prominent part witch cases, and this equally true Ireland from the same date.
Witchcraft seems have been confined the Protestant party, far can judge from the material our disposal, while probable that the existence the penal laws active quiescent would deter the Roman Catholics from coming into any prominence a matter which would likely attract public attention itself such a marked degree.
A certain[ 5] amount capital has been made some partisan writers out this, but imagine that the ordinary Roman Catholic , let say, the seventeenth century, was one whit less credulous superstitious than Protestant peers, bishops, judges, would indeed form a conception directly variance with experience and common sense.
Both parties had their beliefs, but they followed different channels, and affected public life different ways. Another point with reference the plan this work indicated the title needs a few words explanation.
Sharpe, and other writers note. This forcibly brought out the instance a lawsuit being undertaken the instigation a ghost—a quaint item legal lore.
The judge who adjudicated, the jury and lawyers who took their respective parts such a case, would with equal readiness have tried and found guilty a person the charge witchcraft; and probably did far oftener than are aware.
And , account this remoteness, would seem have been prevented from acquiring and assimilating the varying and complex features which went make the witchcraft conception.
Consequently, when the Anglo-Normans came over, they found that the native Celts had 5. Had this country never suffered a cross-channel invasion, had she been left work out her destiny unaided and uninfluenced her neighbours, quite conceivable that some period her history she would have imbibed the witchcraft spirit, and, with the genius characteristic her, would have blended with her own older beliefs, and would have ultimately evolved a form that creed which would have differed many points from what was held elsewhere.
Another point arises connection with the advance the Reformation Ireland. Unfortunately the persecution witches did not cease the countries where that movement made headway—far from ; [ 9] the contrary was kept with unabated vigour.
But Ireland the conditions were different. The consequent turmoil and clash war gave opportunity for the witchcraft idea come maturity and cast its seeds broadcast; was trampled into the earth the feet the combatants, and, though the minority believed firmly witchcraft and kindred subjects, had not sufficient strength make the belief general throughout the country.
The diffusion books and pamphlets throughout a country district one the recognised ways propagating any particular creed; the friends and opponents Christianity have equally recognised the truth this, and have always utilised the fullest extent.
Now England from the sixteenth century find enormous literary output relative witchcraft, the majority the works being support that belief.
The evil that was wrought such amongst ignorant and superstitious people can well imagined; unbelievers would [ 11]converted, while the credulous would rendered more secure their credulity.
Richard Baxter, John Locke, Meric Casaubon, Joseph Glanvil, and Francis Hutchinson, ranged one side the other. Thus the ordinary Englishman would have reasonable grounds for being ignorant the power witches, the various opinions held relative them.
Ireland, the other hand with the solitary exception a pamphlet , which may may not have been locally printed there not the slightest trace any witchcraft literature being published the country until reach the opening years the nineteenth century.
All our information therefore with respect Ireland comes from incidental notices books and from sources across the water. There confusion between cause and effect; books witchcraft would, naturally, the result witch-trials, but their turn they would the means spreading the idea and introducing the notice people who otherwise might never have shown the least interest the matter.
Thus the absence this form literature Ireland seriously hindered the advance the belief and consequent practice witchcraft.
When did witchcraft make its appearance Ireland, and what was its progress therein? With our present knowledge cannot trace its active existence Ireland further back than the Kyteler case ; and this, though was almost[ 13] certainly the first occasion which the evil made itself apparent the general public, yet seems have been only the culmination events that had been quietly and unobtrusively happening for some little time previously.
The language used the Parliament with reference the case would lead infer that nothing remarkable worthy note the way witchcraft sorcery had occurred the country during the intervening century and a quarter.
For another hundred years nothing recorded, while the second half the sixteenth century furnishes with two cases and a suggestion several others.
Others, possessing a little common sense, place the number three thousand, but even this far too high. Yet seems beyond all doubt that more witches were sent the gallows that particular period than any other English history.
Ireland seems have escaped scot- free—[ 14] least have not been able find any instances recorded witch trials that time.
Probably the terribly disturbed state the country, the tremendous upheaval the Cromwellian confiscations, and the various difficulties and dangers experienced the new settlers would largely account for this immunity.
HET WEER. Dat schrijven Burgemeester en Wethouders aan de raad. Ook was de brandweerkazerne niet goed genoeg bereikbaar en waren de aanrijroutes nauwelijks of onvoldoende bekend bij de meldkamer.
Valkenburg neemt voor de editie van dit jaar, die afgelopen weekeinde officieel van start ging, in allerijl maatregelen.
In samenspraak met de Veiligheidsregio Limburg Zuid is besloten extra beveiligers in te zetten, routes beter af te zetten en te.
Belangrijkste maatregel: het invoeren van een nieuw verkeersplan, deze keer opgesteld door een extern bureau, Traffic Support.
Waarnemend burgemeester Martin Eurlings laat weten dat de problemen ontstaan doordat het elk jaar drukker wordt tijdens Kerststad. Op sommige dagen komen meer dan touringcars naar Valkenburg.
De stad ziet het nieuwe verkeersplan als onderdeel van een kwaliteitsslag voor alle evenementen. Het beleid is daarom een paar maanden geleden al flink aangescherpt.
De ov-chipkaart heeft zich ontwikkeld tot een ware geldmachine. In vijf jaar tijd maakte Translink, het bedrijf achter de kaart, 55 miljoen euro winst met de plastic pasjes.
Maar in kregen de vervoerders zelfs 26 miljoen euro dividend uitgekeerd van Translink. Dat geld was verdiend met de verkoop van ov-chipkaarten voor 7,50 euro - productiekosten 88 cent per stuk - aan gebruikers van bus, trein en tram en het uitbaten van het pasjessysteem.
Translink, eigendom van de openbaar vervoerbedrijven, leed in de eerste jaren verlies. Maar op een. Dat is een rendement dat vergelijkbaar is met dat van Apple.
Rover wil dat de kaart goedkoper wordt of dat vervanging gratis wordt. Dat wil ook de Consumentenbond. Per jaar maakt het bedrijf ruim 3 miljoen ovchipkaarten.
Iedere klant komt na maximaal vijf jaar terug, want dan is een pasje verlopen. Translink geeft aan dat het overschot geen winst is, omdat er voor het invoeren van de kaart geld is geleend, dat nu wordt terugbetaald.
They were already awarded at the first European Newspaper Award. The middle area is taken up by photos of victims, arranged as a picture block.
The size of the headline is well-adjusted to the double page. The reading follows the logical process from left to right.
Breakers appear in small variable columns. Struikelstenen worden niet alleen voor joodse slachtoffers gelegd, maar ook voor verzetshelden, sinti en andere slachtoffers van het naziregime.
De portretten hiernaast zijn van Limburgse overledenen van wie de naam al op een steen staat of binnenkort op een struikelsteen komt.
De vrouw op de laatste foto is Marcelle Devries. FOTO MSC. Ze houden er maar mee op, meldden ze twee weken geleden in deze krant. De SPfractie in Provinciale Staten stelt een paar vinnige vragen.
De film totale kosten De Stolpersteine zelf zijn dat trouwens ook: kunstenaar Demnig krijgt euro voor elk van de ruim Een Nederlandse delegatie is ooit nog eens afgereisd om te bepleiten of het niet goedkoper kan maar vangt bot, vertelt Grünfeld.
Demnig heeft de Europese licentie voor het project. Sommige steden Amersfoort, Alkmaar kiezen er al voor om zelf steentjes te maken.
Ze kijkt recht in de lens, vriendelijk maar timide. Ze heeft geen flauw benul wat haar te wachten staat als ze in de nacht van 25 augustus met driehonderd andere Limburgse joden naar het station in Maastricht loopt.
Als jarige alleenstaande heeft ze zich gehoorzaam gemeld voor de Arbeitseinsatz, in de hoop dat de dwangarbeid haar ouders dan bespaard blijft. Vijf dagen later leeft ze niet meer; via Westerbork belandt ze in Auschwitz waar ze bij aankomst meteen wordt vergast.
Niets weet hij van de bewogen geschiedenis van zijn imposante jugendstilhuis aan de Bosscherweg als hij het koopt — Marcelles ouderlijk huis.
Vaag weet hij dat er joodse bewoners zijn geweest; hij is zelf joods en vindt dat dus wel interessant. Pas als een nazaat van de familie Devries plots op de oprit staat met de vraag of hij het huis van zijn opa en oma eens mag zien, begint het te leven.
Dat gebeurt op 22 juni Het is niet het eerste messing steentje met namen, deportatiedata en sterfdata van Holocaust-slachtoffers in de provincie.
Op 3 december plaatst de Duitse kunstenaar Gunter Demnig de allereerste Stolpersteine in Limburg op de Kerkraadse Markt. Ook in Vaals , Gulpen en Eygelshoven verschijnen de stenen.
Twee maanden na Maastricht volgt Heerlen, waar stichting Lodewijk Foijer het voortouw neemt. Hoensbroek , Valkenburg en Sittard volgen.
En daarmee komt de Stolpersteine-olievlek in noordelijke richting tot stilstand. Totdat emeritus hoogleraar Fred Grünfeld en zijn vrouw Marij van den Bosch op het idee komen van hun grote project: het leven van de Limburgse Holocaust-slachtoffers belichten.
Die droom vereist geld en op 25 juni zetten ze hun eerste schreden op het subsidiepad. In het provinciehuis overleggen ze met een ambtenaar hoe een aanvraag eruit moet zien.
Het gesprek vindt plaats op 7 januari Grünfeld c. We hebben achttien extra documenten ingediend! Fred Grunfeld, emeritus hoogleraar.
Naast de honderd steentjes die dan al in Maastricht liggen, willen ze er nog eens in de hoofdstad plaatsen. Ook voor Kerkrade 26 stenen , Heerlen 20 , Valkenburg 23 en Sittard-Geleen hebben ze plannen.
Kosten voor alleen de steentjes: Daarnaast willen ze een film laten maken euro , een app voor wandelingen langs de stenen Het geheel af te sluiten met een symposium van de universiteit Maastricht en Studium Generale euro.
Stip aan de horizon: de herdenking van 75 jaar einde van de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Gouverneur Bovens is enthousiast en stelt voor het project uit te breiden naar de hele provincie.
Zo ontstaat een fatsoenlijke treinverbinding via Venlo tussen Eindhoven en Düsseldorf. Ieder alternatief van een IJzeren Rijn is in de ogen van de nieuwe regering onhaalbaar want te duur.
Bovendien verwacht de nieuwe coalitie massief verzet van gemeenten langs een IJzeren Rijn. Maximaal twee daarvan mogen in de adventstijd worden gepland.
De deuren blijven op de christelijke hoogfeestdagen van Pasen, Kerstmis en Pinksteren gesloten. Duitse en Nederlandse kinderen moeten zo vroeg mogelijk met elkaar kennismaken.
De politie gaat als vanouds op onregelmatige tijden her en der controleren. De nieuwe christen-democratische-liberale regering van Noordrijn-Westfalen schrapt tachtig procent van de nieuwbouwplannen voor windmolenparken.
Bovendien krijgen de gemeenten de vrijheid om te bepalen of en waar ze windmolens willen laten bouwen. Dat blijkt uit het coalitieakkoord van CDU en FDP dat gistermiddag door het parlement in Düsseldorf werd goedgekeurd.
Het windmolenbesluit is een radicale breuk met het beleid tot nu toe van de sociaal-democraten en de Groenen, die de verkiezingen verloren.
Omdat Duitsland na de kernramp in Japan besloot te stoppen met atoomenergie, werd ingezet op alternatieve energiebronnen zoals wind.
Gemeenten werden verplicht een bepaald aantal windmolens te plaatsen. Om de energievoorziening zeker te stellen wil de nieuwe regering tot doorgaan met het winnen van bruinkool in de enorme groeves, vlak over de grens in Midden-Limburg.
De hoop is erop gevestigd dat nieuwe technieken voor opslag van energie tot snellere afbouw van de bruinkoolgroeves leidt.
De bruinkoolwinning heeft grote gevolgen voor de grondwaterstand, ook in Limburg. Volgens Optendrenk hebben de maatregelen die zijn genomen gewerkt en wordt nauwgezet in de gaten gehouden of dat zo blijft.
De raadkamer heeft gisteren het verzoek van het OM om opheffing van de schorsing van die voorlopige hechtenis vorig jaar, toegewezen.
De jarige terreurverdachte uit Wanssum die afgelopen vrijdag na het verlaten van de moskee in Venray werd aangehouden blijft vastzitten tot de rechtszaak op 15 augustus.
Het meisje is vorig jaar juli op jarige leeftijd aangehouden in verband met terrorisme. Over de exacte verdenking wil het Openbaar Ministerie OM niets zeggen vanwege de jeugdige leeftijd van de verdachte.
Het meisje, een Nederlandse bekeerlinge, werd vorig jaar onder voorwaarden vrijgelaten. We zijn er de afgelopen weken weer mee doodgegooid.
Selfies gemaakt op zo ongeveer alle bekende plekken op deze aardkloot. IJdelheid kan tegenwoordig dankzij het mobieltje makkelijker dan ooit worden tentoongespreid.
Toch is er niets nieuws onder de zon; de selfie is zo oud als de mensheid. Al die vrienden wier gezichten je kunt uittekenen op plekken die je kunt dromen.
Ja beste Tim, ik weet dat je op Kos op vakantie bent en het nog altijd geinig vindt om op een opblaasbare banaan te zitten.
Ik waardeer je totale gebrek aan schaamte om als man van 47, kirrend van de pret, een selfie te maken op een banaan met allemaal Oh Oh Cherso-achtige pubers.
Dat vond je vorig jaar ook toen je ook al die selfie van je jubeltenen in de vloedlijn postte. Vakantie-selfies zijn net rijstwafels: ze smaken nergens naar, maar ze happen zo lekker weg.
En je bent tenminste verlost van die haast vergeten kwelling: dia-avondjes. Waarop je jezelf urenlang de tering verveelde terwijl oom Henk de vakantiedia's van een weekje.
Zijn we door de sociale media allemaal veranderd in ijdeltuiten waar Cristiano Ronaldo zich nog voor zou schamen?
Nee hoor. Het valt alleen nu meer op omdat het door diezelfde sociale media zo makkelijk is jezelf te manifesteren.
De mens heeft al zo lang hij bestaat zendingsdrang. Maar waar je zelfs. Dat wordt op een leuke, speelse manier duidelijk gemaakt in het onlangs bij Lemniscaat verschenen boek Selfie: het veranderende gezicht van zelfportretten.
Dik zevenduizend jaar voor Christus gemaakt door grotbewoners die hun handpalm tegen de muren drukten en daar omheen door een hol rietje verf bliezen.
Gewoon om duidelijk te maken dat ze er geweest waren. Loop de mergelgrotten van Maastricht binnen en je ziet dat de mensheid in duizenden jaren beschaving geen sikkepit veran-.
Drie minuten later was hij dood. Dat beeld vergeet ik nooit meer. Daar stond ik, 18 jaar en enig overgebleven kind. Twee zusjes waren als baby al aan difterie gestorven en mijn oudere broer overleed indirect aan de gevolgen van oorlogshandelingen.
Alle drie zijn bij een hinderlaag in een ravijn gestort. Twee meteen dood, mijn broer een tijd daarna. Het zou helaas niet het laatste afscheid en de laatste tegenslag in mijn leven zijn.
Ik moest er niet aan denken, je hele leven op twee vierkante meter staan. Ik was sportief, voetbalde, volleyde, was hardloopkampioen.
Ik nam de benen bij de ambachtsschool. Ik was namelijk goed genoeg bevonden voor de hbs, wilde studeren en iets in de sportwereld gaan doen.
Maar tegelijkertijd was ik ook een heel brave jongen. Uiteindelijk was ik niet rebels genoeg om vaders wil te weerstaan.
Pas na een jaar kreeg ik een fiets, helaas zonder banden. Ik heb toen zelf twee dikke tuinslangen om de wielen heen gelegd. Zo ging dat in die jaren.
Er stond nog een paar duizend gulden open, dat was in een kapitaal. Mijn vader was te zeer een goedzak. Hoe dan ook, het grootste deel van uitstaande betalingen is nooit afgerekend.
Ik was meer een streber, wilde het beter aanpakken, groter groeien. Het mag allemaal niet baten. Het voorstel om de aanvraag, op De brief daarover slaat bij Grünfeld en zijn metgezellen in als een bom.
Vernieuwend is het plan ook niet en het past ook niet binnen de subsidieregels voor toerisme. Pleister op de wonde: de provincie heeft de aanvraag voorgelegd aan het Oranjefonds.
Meer elegantie, meer stijl. Samen met mijn vrouw Milly had ik het oog laten vallen op een pand aan de Parade in Venlo, een A-locatie.
Maar we hadden niet genoeg geld. Mijn buurmeisje Maria was getrouwd met Wim Schutte, de baas van Prins van Oranje, het voormalige concertgebouw van Venlo.
Die leende me het bedrag van vele tienduizenden gulden dat ik nodig had. Dat zou nu niemand meer doen, maar in die tijd vertrouwden mensen elkaar nog en bestond er nog zoiets als naoberschap.
Saamhorigheid, die na de oorlog heel vanzelfsprekend was. Binnen zeven jaar had ik alles terugbetaald. Ik had op de een of andere manier het vak in de vingers.
Milly en ik kwamen uit een eenvoudig gezin, maar we hielden allebei van klasse en een beetje grandeur. Gaandeweg werd Chez Henri een begrip in Venlo, zowel voor mannen als voor vrouwen.
Ik ontwikkelde eigen kapsels voor mannen, zoals Coupe Hardy en Coupe Bross. Ik werd uitgezonden naar Europese kampioenschappen in Madrid, Wenen en Boedapest, eerst als deelnemer, later als jurylid.
De overheid bepaalde toen nog kapperstarieven in de klassen 1 tot en met 5. Ik zat nog in drie, maar vond dat ik al lang toe was aan klasse 4 en rekende daarin ook af.
Een collega gaf me aan bij de Belastingdienst en ik werd veroordeeld tot een boete van duizend gulden. Maar ik timmerde verder aan de weg.
Ik was de eerste in Nederland die het diploma haarwerken voor pruiken en toupetjes haalde, zoals ik helaas ook de eerste was die zes implantaten kreeg, nadat een keeper me tijdens een wedstrijd voor VVV alle boventanden uit de mond had getrapt.
Toch ging ik fluitend door het leven, totdat ik in van de ene op de andere week afscheid moest nemen van de zaak. Ik had kappersbenen: ernstige spataderen en trombose.
En vol-. Ooit Nederlands kapperskampioen, later bespanner van de rackets van Boris Becker en Yannick Noah.
FOTO JOHN PETERS. Daar stond ik weer met lege handen, 37 jaar, getrouwd en vader van twee dochters. Er moest toch brood op de plank komen.
Ik kende Gerrit en Geurt Snetselaar, beter bekend als die Zwei Brüder, omdat ze ook aan de Kaldenkerkerweg waren opgegroeid. Zo kon ik hun nieuwe tennishal in Uden gaan exploiteren.
Ik werd tennisleraar en gediplomeerd racketbespanner. Bij het ABN-tennistoernooi mocht ik later zelfs rackets van Borris Becker en Yannick Noah bespannen.
Zo kwam mijn droom van een beroep in de sport dus alsnog uit. Het Udense avontuur eindigde helaas na vier jaar vanwege contractgedoe.
Maar kort daarna werd ik gevraagd het werk voort te zetten. Harrie Houwen. Milly en ik hebben onze ziel en zaligheid in die baan gestoken. Dag en nacht waren we ermee bezig.
Ik was een groot fan van muziekshows, zingen en operette. Een mooie tijd, totdat Milly in de gevreesde ziekte ALS kreeg.
Drie jaar later is ze overleden. Mariet Brüll uit Grubbenvorst tenniste in die tijd bij ons en was een goede vriendin van Milly. Zij heeft haar verzorgd en nog afgelegd.
Het klikte tussen ons en twee jaar later werden we officieel een paar, dat is alweer 27 jaar geleden. Als ik lessen. Ik was wel zakenman, maar niet voor eigen gewin.
Heb ik daar spijt van? Nee, absoluut niet. En een paar keer per maand strompelen hier nog oude klanten van mijn leeftijd de trap op die alleen maar door mij geknipt willen worden.
Niet voor geld, maar voor de gezelligheid. In het Oude Egypte gingen kunstenaars al een stapje verder dan wat handafdrukken op een rotswand; daar hakten ze hun gezichten en gestalten uit in steen.
En ook Griekse beeldhouwers waren niet vies van wat zelfverheerlijking, zo lezen we in Selfie. Rond voor Christus maakte de beeldhouwer Phidias een beeld van de godin Athene voor het Parthenon in Athene.
Hij beitelde zijn eigen gezicht op haar schild en werd gevangengezet wegens ijdelheid en gebrek aan respect.
Wat dat betreft mag onze eigen Rembrandt van Rijn blij zijn dat hij niet in de Griekse oudheid, maar in onze Gouden Eeuw leefde. Want de schilder was de koning van het zelfportret.
Hij maakte er bijna honderd in veertig jaar tijd. En dat terwijl Rembrandt, ook naar de standaard van die tijd, nu niet echt een Brad Pitt was. Pafferig gezicht en een kokkerd van een aardappelneus.
Maar dat weerhield Nederlands beroemdste schilder er niet van zichzelf keer op keer met veel overgave op het doek vast te leggen. Rembrandt deed niet aan opsmuk.
Iedere wal, groef en oneffenheid in zijn gezicht zien we terug. In zijn laatste selfie, gemaakt op jarige leeftijd een paar maanden voor zijn dood, zien we de droefheid op zijn gezicht.
Droefheid over een leven waarin zijn vrouw, zoon en andere geliefden stierven en waarin hij ondanks zijn enorme talent toch platzak was in zijn laatste levensfase.
Tegen dit prachtige, eerlijke zelfportret kan geen digitale iPhone-selfie op. Rembrandt was trouwens niet de enige selfie-fanaat onder de Nederlandse meesters, zo weet schrijfster Brooks.
Ook Vincent van Gogh mocht zichzelf graag vastleggen tijdens een bijzondere gebeurtenis. Maar waar wij dat doen als we gillend in de Vogelrok zitten, daar schilderde Van Gogh zichzelf net nadat hij zijn oor had afgesneden.
Een bijzonder, maar vooral ook bijzonder macaber moment. Met het verband om zijn oor gewikkeld kijkt Vincent ons in zichzelf gekeerd en serieus aan.
Danas je generalni direktor izraelske tajne sluzbe Ram Ben-Barak saopstio, da je podela Sirije neminovna. Uskoro ce i iracki Kurdi dobiti svoju drzavu.
U svakom slucaju nas narednih godina ocekuju velike seobe naroda. Svetska ekonomska recesija nam tek predstoji.
Da li se u Srbiji ove teme uzimaju za ozbiljno? There is no confusion between cause and effect ; books on witchcraft would, naturally, be the result of witch-trials, but in their turn they would be the means of spreading the idea and of introducing it to the notice of people who otherwise might never have shown the least interest in the matter.
Thus the absence of this form of literature in Ireland seriously hindered the advance of the belief in and consequent practice of witchcraft.
When did witchcraft make its appear- ance in Ireland, and what was its progress therein? It seems probable that this belief, together with certain aspects of fairy lore hitherto unknown to the Irish, and ideas relative to milk and butter magic, may in the main be counted as results of the Anglo- Norman invasion, though it is possible that an earlier instalment of these came in with the Scandinavians.
The language used by the Parliament with reference to the case of would lead us to infer that nothing remarkable or worthy of note in the way of witchcraft or sorcery had occurred in the country during the intervening cen- tury and a quarter.
For another hundred years nothing is recorded, while the second half of the sixteenth century furnishes us with two cases and a suggestion of several others.
It is stated by some writers on the authority, we believe, of an early editor of Hudibras that during the rule of the Commonwealth Parliament thirty thousand witches were put to death in England.
Others, possessing a little common sense, place the number at three thousand, but even this is far too high. Yet it seems to be beyond all doubt that more witches were sent to the gallows at that particular period than at any other in English history.
Probably the terribly disturbed state of the country, the tremendous upheaval of the Cromwellian confiscations, and the various difficulties and dangers experienced by the new settlers would largely account for this immunity.
Notestein 1 shows that the tales of apparitions and devils, of knockings and strange noises, with which English popular literature of the period is filled, are in- dications of a very overwrought public mind ; of similar stories in Ireland, also indicative of a similar state of tension, some examples are given in chapter IV.
We cannot blame them for this ; could anything else be ex- pected from men who, clergy and laity alike, were saturated with the superstitions that were then so prominent in the two countries from which their ranks had been recruited?
Thus the seventeenth century was the period par excellence of witchcraft, demon- ology, and the supernatural in Ireland. The most remarkable witch case of that time, the trial of Florence Newton in , to which allusion has already been made, seems to have been largely influenced by what occurred in England, while the various methods suggested or employed as a test of that old woman's culpability are quite in accordance with the procedure adopted a few years previously by the English witch- finder general, the infamous Matthew Hopkins.
Witchcraft never flourished to any great extent in Ireland, nor did anything ever occur which was worthy of the name of persecution except perhaps as a sequel to the Kyteler case, and the details of which we fear will never be recovered.
The first part of this statement must be taken generally and not pressed too closely, as it is based almost entirely on negative evidence, i.
England has a lengthy list of books and pamphlets, while Scotland's share in the business may be learnt from the fine series of criminal trials edited by Pitcairn in the Miscellanies of the Abbotsford Club, not to speak of other works ; notwithstanding these, many cases in both England and Scotland must have been unrecorded.
Ire- land can produce nothing like this, for, as we have already shown, all printed notices of Irish witchcraft, with one possible ex- ception, are recorded in books published outside the country.
Nevertheless, if all likely sources, both in MS. The Elizabethan Act was passed on account of cases recorded and unrecorded that had arisen in the country ; while, human nature being what it is, it seems likely that the very passing of that Statute by the Irish Parliament was in itself a sufficient in- centive to the witches to practise their art.
No belief really gains ground until it is forbidden ; then the martyrs play their part, and there is a consequent increase in the number of the followers.
The Act of shows the opinion that was entertained in the highest circles relative to the baneful influence of witches and the menace their presence was to the safety of the community at large ; in this no doubt the effect of the " evil eye," or of the satirical verses of Bards, would be equally classed with witchcraft proper.
From various hints and incidental notices, such as in the account of the bewitching of Sir George Pollock, or in Law's statement relative to the case of Mr.
Future students of old documents may be able to bear out this statement, and to supply information at present unavailable.
To deal with the subject of witchcraft in general, with its psychology or with the many strange items which it included, would be out of place in a work exclusively devoted to one particular country, nor indeed could it be adequately dealt with in the space at our disposal ; it is necessary, how- ever, to say a few words on the matter in order to show by comparison how much pain and unhappiness the people of Ireland escaped through the non-prevalence of this terrible cult amongst them.
It would be interesting indeed to work through the extant Records for the purpose of seeing how often torture was judicially used on criminals in Ireland, and probably the student who undertakes the investigation will find that this terrible and illogical method of extracting the truth!
Nor is it at all clear that torture was employed in England in similar trials. Was its use ever legalised by Act of Parliament in either country?
In Scotland, on the other hand, it was employed with terrible frequency ; there was hardly a trial for witchcraft or sorcery but some of the unfortunates incriminated were subjected to this terrible ordeal.
Even as late as torture was judicially applied to 1 Notestein, op. But Scotland, even at its worst, fades into insignificance before certain parts of the Continent, where torture was used to an extent and degree that can only be termed hellish ; the appalling ingenuity displayed in the various methods of applying the " question extraordinary " seems the work of demons rather than of Christians, and makes one blush for humanity.
The repe- tition of torture was forbidden, indeed, but the infamous Inquisitor, James Sprenger, imagined a subtle distinction by which each fresh application was a continuation and not a repetition of the first ; one sorceress in Germany suffered this continuation no less than fifty-six times.
Nor was the punishment of death by fire for witchcraft or sorcery employed to any extent in Ireland. We have one un- doubted instance, and a general hint of some others as a sequel to this.
How the two witches were put to death in we are not told, but probably it was by hanging. On the Con- tinent the stake was in continual request.
In three hundred persons were burnt alive for this crime at Como. In the persecution of those who practised magical arts no rank or class in society was spared ; the noble equally with the peasant was liable to torture and death.
This was especially true of the earlier stages of the movement when sorcery rather than witch- craft was the crime committed.
Sorcery was, so to speak, more of an aristocratic pursuit ; the sorcerer was the master of the Devil until his allotted time expired , and compelled him to do his bidding : the witch generally belonged to the lower classes, embodied in her art many practices which lay on the border- land between good and evil, and was rather the slave of Satan, who almost invariably proved to be a most faithless and unreliable employer.
For an illustration from this country of the broad distinction between the two the reader may compare Dame Alice Kyteler with Florence Newton.
Anybody might become a victim of the witch epidemic ; noblemen, scholars, monks, nuns, titled ladies, bishops, clergy none were immune from accusation and con- demnation.
Nay, even a saint once fell under suspicion; in S. Francis de Sales was accused of having been present at a sorcerers' sabbath, and narrowly escaped being burnt by the populace.
In conclusion, we have not considered it necessary to append a bibliography. The books that have been consulted and which have contained no information relative to Ireland are, unfortunately, all too numerous, while those that have proved of use are fully referred to in the text or footnotes of the present volume.
We should like how- ever to acknowledge our indebtedness to such general works on the subject as Sir Walter Scott's Demonology and Witchcraft, C.
Sharpe's History of Witchcraft in Scotland, John Ashton's The Devil in Britain and America, and Professor Wallace Note- stein's History of Witchcraft in England, Washington, ; the last three contain most useful bibliographical notices.
For a good bird's-eye view of witch- craft on the Continent from the earliest times we can recommend J.
Franfais' Ueglise et la Sorcellerie Paris : Nourry, CHAPTER II A. The coffin-shaped tombstone of one of her ancestors, Jose de Keteller, who died in , is preserved at S.
Mary's church; the inscription is in Norman-French and the lettering is Lombardic. The lady in question must have been far removed from the popular conception of a witch as an old woman of striking ugliness, or else her powers of attraction were very remarkable, for she had succeeded in leading four hus- bands to the altar.
She had been married, first, to William Outlawe of Kilkenny, banker ; secondly, to Adam le Blund of Callan ; thirdly, to Richard de Valle all of whom she was supposed to have got rid of by poison ; and fourthly, to Sir John le Poer, whom it was said she deprived of his natural senses by philtres and in- cantations.
The Bishop of Ossory at this period was Richard de Ledrede, a Franciscan friar, and an Englishman by birth. He soon learnt that things were not as they should be, for when making a visitation of his diocese early in he found by an Inquisition, in which were five knights and numerous 26 DAME ALICE KYTELER nobles, that there was in the city a band of heretical sorcerers, at the head of whom was Dame Alice.
The following charges were laid against them. They had denied the faith of Christ absolutely for a year or a month, according as the object they desired to gain through sorcery was of greater or less importance.
During all that period they believed in none of the doctrines of the Church ; they did not adore the Body of Christ, nor enter a sacred building to hear mass, nor make use of consecrated bread or holy water.
They offered in sacrifice to demons living animals, which they dismembered, and then distributed at cross-roads to a certain evil spirit of low rank, named the Son of Art.
They sought by their sorcery advice and responses from demons. In order to arouse feelings of love or hatred, or to inflict death or disease on the bodies of the faithful, they made use of powders, unguents, ointments, and candles of fat, which were compounded as follows.
They took the entrails of cocks sacrificed to demons, certain horrible worms, various unspecified herbs, dead men's nails, the hair, brains, and shreds of the cerements of boys who were buried unbaptized, with other abominations, all of which they cooked, with various incantations, over a fire of oak-logs in a vessel made out of the skull of a decapitated thief.
The children of Dame Alice's four husbands accused her before the Bishop of having killed their fathers by sorcery, and of having brought on them such stolidity of their senses that they bequeathed all their wealth to her and her favourite son, William Outlawe, to the impoverishment of the other children.
They also stated that her present husband, Sir John le Poer, had been reduced to such a condition by sorcery and the use of powders that he had 28 DAME ALICE KYTELER become terribly emaciated, his nails had dropped off, and there was no hair left on his body.
No doubt he would have died had he not been warned by a maid-servant of what was happening, in consequence of which he had forcibly possessed himself of his wife's keys, and had opened some chests in which he found a sackful of horrible and detestable things which he transmitted to the bishop by the hands of two priests.
The said dame had a certain demon, an incubus, named Son of Art, or Robin son of Art, who had carnal knowledge of her, and from whom she admitted that she had received all her wealth.
According to another source the sacrifice to the evil spirit is said to have consisted of nine red cocks, and nine peacocks' eyes. Upon this William Outlawe formed a strong party to oppose the Bishop's demands, amongst which were the Chan- cellor, his near relative, and Sir Arnold le Poer, the Seneschal of Kilkenny, who was probably akin to Dame Alice's fourth hus- band.
The Chancellor in reply wrote to the Bishop stating that a warrant for arrest could not be obtained until a public process of excommunication had been in force for forty days, while Sir Arnold also wrote re- questing him to withdraw the case, or else to ignore it.
Finding such obstacles placed in his way the Bishop took the matter into his own hands, and cited the Dame, who was then in her son's house in Kilkenny, to appear before him.
As might be ex- 30 DAME ALICE KYTELER pected, she ignored the citation, and fled immediately. Foiled in this, he cited her son William for heresy.
Upon this Sir Arnold came with William to the Priory of Kells, where De Ledrede was holding a visitation, and besought him not to proceed further in the matter.
Finding entreaty useless he had recourse to threats, which he speedily put into execution. As the Bishop was going forth on the following day to con- tinue his visitation he was met on the confines of the town of Kells by Stephen le Poer, bailiff of the cantred of Overk, and a posse of armed men, by whom he was arrested under orders from Sir Arnold, and lodged the same day in Kilkenny jail.
This naturally caused tremendous excitement in the city. The place became ipso facto sub- ject to an interdict ; the Bishop desired the Sacrament, and it was brought to him in solemn procession by the Dean and Chapter.
Seeing this, William Outlawe nervously informed Sir Arnold of it, who thereupon decided to keep the Bishop in closer restraint, but subsequently changed his mind, and allowed him to have companions with him day and night, and also granted free admission to all his friends and servants.
After De Ledrede had been detained in prison for seventeen days, and Sir Arnold having thereby attained his end, viz. The latter refused to sneak out like a re- leased felon, but assumed his pontificals, and, accompanied by all the clergy and a throng of people, made his way solemnly to S.
Canice's Cathedral, where he gave thanks to God. With a pertinacity we cannot but admire he again cited William Outlawe by public proclamation to appear before him, but before the day arrived the Bishop 32 DAME ALICE KYTELER was himself cited to answer in Dublin for having placed an interdict on his diocese.
He excused himself from attending on the plea that the road thither passed through the lands of Sir Arnold, and that in con- sequence his life would be in danger.
De Ledrede had been arrested by Le Peer's orders in Lent, in the year 1 On Monday following the octave of Easter the Seneschal held his court in Kilkenny, to which entrance was denied the Bishop ; but the latter, fully robed, and carrying the Sacrament in a golden vase, made his way into the court-room, and " ascending the tribunal, and reverently elevating the Body of Christ, sought from the Seneschal, Justiciary, and Bailiffs that a hearing should be granted to him.
He attended accordingly, and found the King's and the Archbishop's courts against him to a man, but the upshot of the matter was that the Bishop won the day ; Sir Arnold was humbled, and sought his pardon for the wrongs he had done him.
This was granted, and in the presence of the council and the assembled prelates they mutually gave each other the kiss of peace. Affairs having come to such a satisfactory conclusion the Bishop had leisure to turn his attention to the business that had un- avoidably been laid aside for some little time.
He directed letters patent, praying the Chancellor to seize the said Alice Kyteler, and also directed the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Dublin to cite her to respond on a certain day in Kilkenny before the Bishop.
But the bird escaped again out of the hand of the fowler. Dame Alice fled a second time, on this occasion 34 DAME ALICE KYTELER from Dublin, where she had been living, and it is said made her way to England, where she spent the remainder of her days un- molested.
Several of her confederates were subsequently arrested, some of them being apparently in a very humble condition of life, and were committed to prison.
Their names were : Robert of Bristol, a clerk, John Galrussyn, Ellen Galrussyn, Syssok Galrussyn, William Payn de Boly, Petronilla of Meath, her daughter Sarah, 1 Alice the wife of Henry Faber, Annota Lange, and Eva de Brownestown.
When the Bishop arrived in Kilkenny from Dublin he went direct to the prison, and interviewed the unfortunates mentioned above.
They all immediately confessed to the charges laid against them, and even went to the length of admitting other crimes of which no mention had been made ; but, according to them, Dame Alice was the mother and mistress of them all.
Upon this the Bishop wrote letters on the 6th of June to the Chancellor, and to the Treasurer, Walter de Islep, requesting them to order the Sheriff to attach the bodies of these people and put 1 Elsewhere given as Basilia.
But a warrant was refused, owing to the fact that William Outlawe was a relation of the one and a close friend of the other ; so at length the Bishop obtained it through the Justiciary, who also consented to deal with the case when he came to Kilkenny.
Before his arrival the Bishop summoned William Outlawe to answer in S. Mary's Church. The latter appeared before him, accompanied by a band of men armed to the teeth ; but in no way overawed by this show of force, De Ledrede formally accused him of heresy, of favouring, receiv- ing, and defending heretics, as well as of usury, perjury, adultery, clericide, and ex- communications in all thirty-four items were brought forward against him, and he was permitted to respond on the arrival of the Justiciary.
When the latter reached Kilkenny, accompanied by the Chancellor, the Treasurer, and the King's Council, the Bishop in their presence recited the charges against Dame Alice, and with the common consent of the lawyers present declared her to be a sorceress, magician, and heretic, and demanded that she should be handed over 36 DAME ALICE KYTELER to the secular arm and have her goods and chattels confiscated as well.
Judging from Friar Clyn's note this took place on the 2nd of July. On the same day the Bishop caused a great fire to be lit in the middle of the town in which he burnt the sack- ful of magical stock-in-trade, consisting of powders, ointments, human nails, hair, herbs, worms, and other abominations, which the reader will remember he had received from Sir John le Poer at an early stage in the proceedings.
Further trouble arose with William Out- lawe, who was backed by the Chancellor and Treasurer, but the Bishop finally suc- ceeded in beating him, and compelled him to submit on his bended knees.
By way of penance he was ordered to hear at least three masses every day for the space of a year, to feed a certain number of poor people, and to cover with lead the chancel of S.
Canice's Cathedral from the belfry eastward, as well as the Chapel of the Blessed Virgin. He thankfully agreed to do this, but subsequently refused to fulfil his obligations, and was thereupon cast into prison.
One of them, Petronilla of Meath, was made the scape- goat for her mistress. The Bishop had her flogged six times, and under the repeated application of this form of torture she made the required confession of magical practices.
She admitted the denial of her faith and the sacrificing to Robert, son of Art, and as well that she had caused certain women of her acquaintance to appear as if they had goats' horns.
She also confessed that at the suggestion of Dame Alice she had fre- quently consulted demons and received re- sponses from them, and that she had acted as a " medium " mediatrix between her and the said Robert.
She declared that although she herself was mistress of the Black Art, yet she was as nothing in com- parison with the Dame from whom she had learnt all her knowledge, and that there was no one in the world more skilful than she.
She also stated that William Outlawe deserved death as much as she, for he was privy to their sorceries, and for a year and 38 DAME ALICE KYTELER a day had worn the devil's girdle l round his body.
When rifling Dame Alice's house there was found " a wafer of sacra- mental bread, having the devil's name stamped thereon instead of Jesus Christ, and a pipe of ointment wherewith she greased a staffe, upon which she ambled and gal- loped through thicke and thin, when and in what manner she listed.
This was the first instance of the punishment of death by fire being inflicted in Ireland for heresy. Whether or not Petronilla's fellow-prison- ers were punished is not clear, but the words of the anonymous narrator show us that the burning of that unfortunate wretch was rather the beginning than the end of persecution that in fact numerous other suspected persons were followed up, some of whom shared her terrible fate, while to others milder 1 Magical girdles were used for various purposes.
He says : " With regard to the other heretics and sorcerers who belonged to the pestilen- tial society of Robin, son of Art, the order of law being preserved, some of them were publicly burnt to death ; others, confessing their crimes in the presence of all the people, in an upper garment, are marked back and front with a cross after they had abjured their heresy, as is the custom ; others were solemnly whipped through the town and the market-place ; others were banished from the city and diocese ; others who evaded the jurisdiction of the Church were excommunicated ; while others again fled in fear and were never heard of after.
And thus, by the authority of Holy Mother Church, and by the special grace of God, that most foul brood was scattered and destroyed. The Bishop accused him of heresy, had him excommunicated, and com- mitted prisoner to Dublin Castle.
His innocency was believed in by most people, 40 DAME ALICE KYTELER and Roger Outlawe, Prior of Kilmainham, who also figures in our story, and who was appointed Justiciary of Ireland in , showed him some kindness, and treated him with humanity.
But for a time he could speak none. At last his [Pg 90] shaking ceased, and he began to speak, telling me, that for a long time the Devil had appeared to him; first at Glasgow he bought a horse from him, receiving a sixpence in earnest, and that in the end he offered to him a great purse full of sylver to be his, making no mention of the horse; he said that he blessed himself, and so the buyer with the sylver and gold that was poured out upon the table vanished.
But some days thereafter he appeared to him at his own house, naming him by his name, and said to him, Ye are mine, for I arled you with a sixpence, which yet ye have.
Then said he, I asked his name, and he answered, they call me Nickel Downus I suppose that he repeated evil, that he should have said Nihil Damus.
Being thus molested with these and many other apparitions of the Devil, he left Scotland; but being come to Ireland he did often likewise appear to him, and now of late he still commands me to kill and slay; and oftentimes, says he, my whinger hath been drawn and kept under my cloak to obey his commands, but still something holds my hand that I cannot strike.
But then I asked him [Pg 91] whom he was bidden kill? He answered, any that comes in my way; but. When he uttered these words he fell again atrembling, and was stopped in his speaking, looking lamentably at me, designing me to be the person he aimed at; then he fell a crying and lamenting.
In his choice of a date his Satanic Majesty [Pg 92] showed his respect for popular superstitions. This attack of delirium tremens though Mr.
Blair would not have so explained it had a most salutary effect; the constable was in such an abject state of terror lest the Devil should carry him off that he begged Mr.
Blair to sit up with him all Hallow-night, which he did, spending the time very profitably in prayer and exhortation, which encouraged the man to defy Satan and all his works.
The upshot of the matter was, that he became very charitable to the poor, and seems to have entirely renounced his intemperate habits.
Rejecting the supernatural element in the above as being merely the fruits of a diseased mind, there is no reason to doubt the truth of the story.
Blair, warmly congratulated him on the successful exorcism he had practised. If the period treated of in this chapter, viz. The rebellion of , and the Cromwellian confiscations, that troubled period when the [Pg 94] country was torn by dissention, and ravaged by fire, sword, and pestilence, was aptly ushered in by a series of supernatural events which occurred in the county of Limerick.
Priests have adventured to be there, but have been cruelly beaten for their paynes, and carryed away they knew not how, some two miles and some four miles.
Moreover were seen in the like manner, after they appear to the view of the neighbours, infinite number of armed men on foote as well as on horseback One thing more [ i.
Mary Burke with twelve servants lyes in the house, and never one hurt, onley they must dance with them every night; they say, Mrs.
Mary come away, [Pg 95] telling her she must be wyfe to the inchanted Earl of Desmond Uppon a Mannour of my Lord Bishoppe of Lymerick, Loughill, hath been seen upon the hill by most of the inhabitants aboundance of armed men marching, and these seene many tymes—and when they come up to them they do not appeare.
These things are very strange, if the cleargie and gentrie say true. During the rebellion an appalling massacre of Protestants took place at Portadown, when about a hundred persons, men, women, and children, were forced over the bridge into the river, and so drowned; the few that could swim, and so managed to reach the shore, were either knocked on the head by the insurgents when they landed, or else were shot.
It is not a matter of surprise that this terrible incident gave rise to legends and stories in which anything strange or out of the common was magnified out of all proportion.
The supposed spectre was probably a poor, bereaved woman, demented by grief and terror, who stole out of her hiding-place at night to bewail the murder of her friends, while the weird cries arose from the half-starved dogs of the country-side, together with the wolves which abounded in Ireland at that period, quarrelling and fighting over the corpses.
Granting the above, and bearing in mind the credulity [Pg 97] of all classes of Society, it is not difficult to see how the tales originated; but to say that, because such obviously impossible statements occur in certain depositions, the latter are therefore worthless as a whole, is to wilfully misunderstand the popular mind of the seventeenth century.
We have the following on the testimony of the Rev. George Creighton, minister of Virginia, co. Thereupon the Rogue thrust three times at her naked body with his drawn sword, and never pierced her skin; whereat he being, as it seems, much confounded, went away and left her.
This many hundreds were eye-witnesses of. Divers of the like have I confidently been assured of, who have been provided of diabolical charms.
The ease with which the accidental or unusual was transformed into the miraculous at this period is shown by the following.
Tate and his wife and children were flying to Dublin from the insurgents. On their way they were wandering over commons covered with snow, without any food.
Tate mentioned above was evidently the Rev. Faithful Tate, D. On the night of Sunday, the 8th of May , a terrific storm of hail and rain came upon the English soldiers, which of course they attributed to other than the correct source.
It was not possible for any match to keep fire, or any sojor to handle his musket or yet to stand. Yea, severalls of them dyed that night of meere cold.
Our sojors, and some of our officers too who suppose that no thing which is more than ordinarie can be the product of nature , attributed this hurrikan to the divilish skill of some Irish witches.
The latter went out, found a witch, persuaded her to confess herself the guilty author of the storm, and then burnt her—by which time, no doubt, the wind had subsided!
Much in the same strain might be added, but, lest we should weary our readers, we shall content ourselves with giving two more marvellous relations from this particular period so full of the marvellous.
The first of these was some form of the northern lights, and is also recorded in the diary of certain Puritan officers. That if the Irish took the water first to move towards the English they should be put to a total Rout, which came to pass.
An instance of an Irishman suffering from the effects of witchcraft outside Ireland is afforded us in a pathetic petition sent up to the English Parliament between the years and Antrim, where he was born, by which he was reduced to such extremity that he was forced to come [Pg ] over to England to seek some means of livelihood for himself in craving the charity of well-disposed people, but contrary to his expectation he has been often troubled there with dreams and fearful visions in his sleep, and has been twice bewitched, insomuch that he can find no quietness or rest here, and so prays for a pass to return to Ireland.
The saintly James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, was a Prelate who, if he had happened to live at an earlier period would certainly have been numbered amongst those whose wide and profound learning won for themselves the title of magician—as it was, he was popularly credited with prophetical powers.
According to it, he foretold the rebellion of in a sermon on Ezekiel iv. William Turner in his Compleat History of Remarkable Providences London, gives a premonition of approaching death that the Archbishop received.
A lady who was dead appeared to him in his sleep, and invited him to sup with her the next night. He accepted the invitation, and died the following afternoon, 21st March John Browne of Durley in Ireland was made by his neighbour, John Mallett of Enmore, trustee [Pg ] for his children in minority.
In Mr. Some of his people and friends were sitting by him, when to their horror they suddenly saw the locked chest begin to open, lock by lock, without the aid of any visible hand, until at length the lid stood upright.
The chest slowly locked itself in exactly the same manner as it had opened, and shortly after this Mr. Browne died.
With the Restoration of King Charles II witchcraft did not cease; on the other hand it went on with unimpaired vigour, and several important cases were brought to trial in England.
In one instance, at least, it made its appearance in Ireland, this time far south, at Youghal. It is from the first of these sources that we have taken it, and reproduce it here verbatim, except that some redundant matter has been omitted, i.
Hayman in his Guide to Youghal attributes the whole affair to the credulity of the Puritan settlers, who were firm believers in such things. In this he is correct no doubt, but it should be borne in mind by the reader that such a belief was not confined to the new-comers at Youghal, but was common property throughout England and Ireland.
The tale shows that there was a little covey of suspected witches in Youghal at that date, as well as some skilful amateur witch-finders Messrs.
Perry, Greatrakes, and Blackwall. For the benefit of the uninitiated we may briefly describe the actual process, which, as we shall see, the Mayor contemplated, [Pg ] but did not actually carry out.
She is then thrown into the water: if she sinks and drowns, by any chance! Being asked how long she had known her, she said for three or four years.
And being asked whether she perceived at these times what she vomited? She replied, she did; for then she was not in so great distraction as in other parts of her Fits she was.
And that before the first beginning of her Fits several and very many small stones would fall upon her as she went up and down, and would follow her from place to place, and from one Room to another, and would hit her on the head, shoulders, and arms, and fall to the ground and vanish away.
And that she and several others would see them both fall upon her and on the ground, but could never take [Pg ] them, save only some few which she and her Master caught in their hands.
And being asked how she knew that she was thus carried about and disposed of, seeing in her Fits she was [Pg ] in a violent distraction?
She answered, she never knew where she was, till they of the Family and the Neighbours with them, would be taking her out of the places whither she was so carried and removed.
And being asked the reason and wherefore she cried out so much against the said Florence Newton in her Fits? She answered, because she saw her, and felt her torturing her.
And lastly, that when the people of the Family, by advice of the Neighbours and consent of the Mayor, had sent for Florence Newton to come to the Defendant, she was always worse when she was brought to her, and her Fits more violent than at another time.
And that after the said Florence was committed at Youghal the Defendant was not troubled, but was very well till a little while after the said Florence was removed to Cork, and then the Defendant was as [Pg ] ill as ever before.
And then the Mayor of Youghal, one Mr. Aston towards the said Mary, as if she intended to strike at her if she could have reached her, and said, Now she is down.
Upon which the Maid fell suddenly down to the ground like a [Pg ] stone, and fell into a most violent Fit, that all the people that could come to lay hands on her could scarce hold her, she biting her own arms and shreeking out in a most hideous manner, to the amazement of all the Beholders.
And continuing so for about a quarter of an hour the said Florence Newton sitting by herself all that while pinching her own hands and arms, as was sworn by some that observed her , the Maid was ordered to be carried out of Court, and taken into a House.
Whereupon the Court having taken notice that the Maid said she had been very well when the said Florence was in Bolts, and ill again when out of them, till they were again put on her, demanded of the Jaylor if she were in Bolts or no, to which he said she was not, only manacled.
Upon which order was given to put on her Bolts, and upon putting them on she cried out that she was killed, she was undone, she was spoiled, why do you torment me [Pg ] thus?
And then came in a messenger from the Maid, and informed the Court the Maid was well. At which Florence immediately and cholerickly uttered these words, She is not well yet!
And being demanded, how she knew this, she denied she said so, though many in Court heard her say the words, and she said, if she did, she knew not what she said, being old and disquieted, and distracted with her sufferings.
But the Maid being reasonably well come to herself, was, before the Court knew anything of it, sent out of Town to Youghall, and so was no further examined.
And Thomas Harrison swore that he had observed the said Florence peep at her, and use that motion with her hands, and saw [Pg ] the Maid fall immediately upon that motion, and heard the words, Now she is down , uttered.
Whereupon she said she could say it, and had often said it, and the Court being desired by her to hear her say it, gave her leave; and four times together after these words, Give us this day our daily bread , she continually said, As we forgive them , leaving out altogether the words, And forgive us our trespasses , upon which the Court appointed one near her to teach her the words she left out.
And being often pressed to utter the words as they were repeated to her, she did not. And being asked the reason, she said she was old and had a bad memory; and being asked how her memory served her so well for other [Pg ] parts of the Prayer, and only failed her for that, she said she knew not, neither could she help it.
That sometimes the Maid would be reading in a Bible, and on a sudden he hath seen the Bible struck out of her Hand into the middle of the Room, and she immediately cast into a violent Fit.
And then she said, that there were others, as Goody Halfpenny and Goody Dod, in Town, that could do these things as well as she, and that it might be one of these that had done the Maid wrong.
And there was a very great noise, as if some body with Bolts and Chains had been running up and down the Room, and they asked her what it was she spoke to, and what it was that made the noise; and she said she saw nothing, neither did she speak, and if she did, it was she knew not what.
Greatrix, and Mr. Blackwall went to the Maid, and Mr. Greatrix and he had read of a way to [Pg ] discover a Witch, which he would practise.
And so they sent for the Witch, and set her on a Stool, and a Shoemaker with a strong Awl endeavoured to stick it into the Stool, but could not till the third time.
And then they bade her come off the Stool, but she said she was very weary and could not stir. Then two of them pulled her off, and the Man went to pull out his Awl, and it dropped into his hand with half an Inch broke off the blade of it, and they all looked to have found where it had been stuck, but could find no place where any entry had been made by it.
Then Mr. And when she came to herself he asked her what had troubled her; and she said [Pg ] Gammer Newton. And the Deponent saith, Why, she was not there.
Yes , said she, I saw her by my bedside. The Deponent then asked her the original of all, which she related from the time of her begging the Beef, and after kissing, and so to that time.
That then they caused the Maid to be got up, and sent for Florence Newton, but she refused to come, pretending she was sick, though it indeed appeared she was well.
Then the Mayor of Youghall came in, and spoke with the Maid, and then sent again and caused Florence Newton to be brought in, and immediately the Maid fell into her Fit far more violent, and three times as long as at any other time, and all the time the Witch was in the Chamber the Maid cried out continually of her being hurt here and there, but never named the Witch: but as soon as she was removed, then she cried out against her by the name of Gammer Newton, and this for several times.
And still when the Witch was out of the Chamber the Maid would desire to go to Prayers, and he found good affections of her in time of Prayer, but when the Witch was brought in again, [Pg ] though never so privately, although she could not possibly, as the Deponent conceives, see her, she would be immediately senseless, and like to be strangled, and so would continue till the Witch was taken out, and then though never so privately carried away she would come again to her senses.
That afterwards Mr. Greatrix, Mr. Then he likewise examined the other two Women, but they utterly denied it, and were content to abide any trial; whereupon he caused Dod, Halfpenny, and Newton to be carried to the Maid; and [Pg ] he told her that these two Women, or one of them, were said by Gammer Newton to have done her hurt, but she said, No, no, they are honest Women, but it is Gammer Newton that hurts me, and I believe she is not far off.
But April following she bewitched one David Jones to death by kissing his hand through the Grate of the Prison, for which she was indicted at Cork Assizes, and the evidence is as follows:.
To which she answered she knew not; whereupon he replied, I and Frank Beseley have been standing Centinel over the Witch all night.
To which the said Elenor said, Why, what hurt is that? To which she answered, The Lord forbid! Then David Jones began to teach her, but she could not or would not say it, though often taught it.
Whereupon he went to visit him, [and was told by him that the Hag] had him by the Hand, and was pulling off his Arm.
And he said, Do you not see the old hag How she pulls me? About fourteen days languishing he died. It would seem that the witch was indicted upon two separate charges, viz.
The case must have created considerable commotion in Youghal, and was considered so important that the Attorney-General went down to prosecute, but unfortunately there is no record of the verdict.
If found guilty and we can have little doubt but that she was , she would have been sentenced to death in pursuance of the Elizabethan Statute, section 1.
Many of the actors in the affair were persons of local prominence, and can be identified. He was born in , and died in He joined the Parliamentary Army, and when it was disbanded in , became a country magistrate.